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Germany Kaysen imported submersible oil pump overview
The German Kaysen submersible electric pump unit is a kind of mechanical oil production equipment. Submersible pump is a multi-stage centrifugal pump, each stage is composed of a rotating impeller and a fixed guide wheel, the impeller is divided into two types: floating and compression, the structure of the impeller determines the displacement of the pump, and the number of stages of the impeller determines the pump The submersible motor in the oil well transfers mechanical energy to the submersible oil pump. The impeller in the submersible oil pump rotates at high speed to pump crude oil from the well to the surface oil collection system. The submersible electric pump was originally introduced by three major companies in the United States, and various series have been developed through transformation, and high pump efficiency, head and flow have been obtained.
● Large displacement fluid production is the main advantage of this oil production method. However, submersible electric pumps are also often used in oil wells with relatively low fluid production.
● This pump can transfer the water in the upper water layer in the oil well to the lower water injection layer.
● Simple operation and convenient management, which can beautify the environment and reduce noise in the urban area.
● It can be well used in inclined wells, horizontal wells and offshore oil production.
● Easy to deal with corrosion and wax formation.
● It is easy to install downhole pressure and temperature test equipment, and transmit the test signal to the surface through the cable for measurement reading.
● In order to adapt to the decline or change of oil well output, frequency conversion device can be used to adjust the power supply frequency, but the investment cost is higher.
● The maintenance-free period is longer, and the oil production efficiency is relatively high.
Widely used in water, hot springs, oil fields, oil refining, petrochemical and other media.
Conditions of Use:
●Ambient medium temperature: ≤150℃; oil well temperature: 50~180℃. When the temperature is less than 90℃, the O-ring is generally made of nitrile rubber, the thrust pad on the impeller is generally made of phenolic laminated glass cloth, and the oil well is higher than 90℃. The O-ring is generally made of fluorine rubber (170℃) ), the thrust pad on the impeller is generally selected from F4 polystyrene (150℃).
● Gas content: Submersible oil pumps are completely immersed in well fluid when working in oil wells. Oil wells often contain different kinds of free gas. Free gas will have a serious impact on the working characteristics of submersible pumps. When a certain amount is reached, an air lock will occur. Gas interference will seriously affect the normal operation of submersible electric pumps and cause the motor load to change drastically. Or unload, you can install the oil and gas separator under the submersible pump.
●Sand content of well fluid: ≤0.05%, sand content: When submersible pump pumps well fluid in oil well, it is required that the sand content in well fluid should not exceed 0.05%.
●Applicable medium: oil-water or oil-gas-water three-phase mixture. Under the pressure condition of the suction port, the gas volume accounts for 0-30% of the total volume flow of the three phases;
●Viscosity of well fluid: ≤7mm2/s;
On-site management and troubleshooting of submersible electric pumps:
1.1 Equipment inspection site
(1) Inspection of the control cabinet: whether the contactor is stable during operation, whether the vibration noise is normal; whether the current recorder is accurate, and whether the current number on the card is consistent with the instrument range;
(2) Check the transformer: whether the sound, oil level and oil color are normal; whether the high-voltage switch is in good contact or not, the blade should be deeper than 80%;
(3) Wellhead inspection: whether the wellhead bleed valve, oil gauge, etc. are complete; whether the gate switch is corroded, whether it is flexible, etc.
1.2 Management requirements after the electric pump well is put into production
(1) The normal operation of the electric pump well is operated by the oil producer on duty. When a fault occurs, it must be handled by a professional who holds an electric pump operation certificate;
(2) After the unit is put into normal operation, pay attention to replacing the current card. In order to ensure the accuracy of the recording, the zero calibration of the current recorder should be carried out before commissioning or when the machine is shut down for various reasons;
(3) Do a good job of updating various information.
1.3 Electric pump well cleaning wax
Wash cleaning should be conducted once a week after the electric pump well is put into production, and a reasonable wax cleaning cycle should be formulated according to the specific situation. The wax cleaning operation should maintain quality and quantity, and should be smooth, with no hard wax, no top drilling, and no blocking of the wellbore, etc., and relevant work accounts should be established after the wax cleaning is completed.
2 Analysis of the current card of the submersible pump and troubleshooting
Submersible pump well current card is a curve reflecting the relationship between the time of submersible pump operation and the current change of submersible motor. It is the main basis for daily production management of submersible pump wells. In a normal current card, the current curve should be a smooth curve.
2.1 The current card of the pump running under the interference of gas
Crude oil is degassed, and a large amount of gas enters the pump to cause current fluctuations, resulting in a decline in production. The prevention methods are: adding an air anchor or a rotary oil-gas separator at the suction port of the pump; controlling the casing gas reasonably; ensuring the reasonable sedimentation of the unit; adding a certain amount of demulsifier to the well fluid.
2.2 Current card for overload shutdown
After the unit is started, the current gradually rises to the rated current value for normal operation; then gradually rises, and finally reaches the overload current setting value, overload shutdown. Prevention and treatment methods: normal overload shutdown should be washed well; sand flushing before pump down, sand well lifting unit; regular wax cleaning and hot washing of ground pipeline; treatment of lack of phase, or replacement unit.
2.3 Voltage fluctuation
When the supply voltage fluctuates, in order to meet the power requirements of the pump, the motor current will fluctuate accordingly. The reason is that the sudden start of the high-power plunger pump on the power supply line caused an instantaneous voltage drop, multiple nearby pumping wells started simultaneously, or there was a lightning strike. Preventive measures: After a large area of power failure, wait for other equipment to start before starting the pump, and install lightning protection equipment.
2.4 Insufficient liquid supply
Due to insufficient fluid supply in the formation, the pump evacuates and eventually shuts down due to overload, and the system will automatically restart. When the current is reduced, the liquid production and pump efficiency will be reduced until no liquid enters the pump, resulting in an underload shutdown. The reason is that the pump is not properly selected at the initial stage of electric pump well production, or the oil well is supplied with liquid after a period of production. Treatment methods: reduce the oil nozzle; deepen the pump hook; replace the small displacement unit.
3 Judgment and treatment of other faults of submersible electric pump
3.1 Judgment and treatment of column leakage
When a string leak occurs, the oil pressure and output will relatively decrease. Wells with a drain valve string are mostly caused by the drain pin being broken or eroded, and the pump operation must be checked before production can be resumed; the wells with corrosion and leakage of the string can be judged by the verification method of the string pressure .
3.2 Increased starting current after shutdown
The restart current will increase after the heavy oil pump well is shut down, which will cause the unit to be burned. This phenomenon will become more obvious in winter. After the oil well is shut down, the temperature decreases, the oil becomes thicker, the fluidity becomes worse, the pump speed increases slowly, the electric pump runs at a high speed for a long time, and the current is very high, resulting in a short life. Frequency conversion centralized switching technology can be used to control multiple wellheads with one frequency conversion machine, so that each well realizes soft start. A small investment can reduce the start of the pump burner, and the gradual increase in crude oil temperature can also reduce the impact of crude oil viscosity on the pump. 3.3 Cable fault diagnosis and treatment
The failure of the cable is manifested as an overload shutdown of the ground control cabinet. Sometimes the current curve on the switchboard tripping current card suddenly rises, similar to the electrical damage of the motor. During the test, the insulation resistance of the three relative grounds is 0, and the resistance is balanced. There are two cases of cable damage: one is damage at the wellhead or tubing hanger, the direct resistance does not exceed 1Ω; the second is away from the wellhead, the direct resistance is 2-3Ω, the specific damage can be calculated according to the resistance value of each meter of cable . For damage at the wellhead, the cable can be reconnected; if the oil tree cap is down to several tubings, the tubing can be lifted to reconnect the cable; if the damage is serious, the pump operation must be checked.
3.4 Failures caused by well fluid and treatment
This situation may occur in wells containing sand and mud and other mechanical impurities, electric pump test wells, and new wells produced by sand control completions. The performance is that the running current is high and fluctuates. When the overload setting value is exceeded, the overload stops, and the oil nozzle may be blocked. For the new wells produced by sand control completion, the reason is that the sand filling is not rinsed out after completion of the completion operation, and the following measures can be taken to solve it: increase the overload setting value; increase the oil nozzle; shut down for backflushing.
3.5 Diagnosis and elimination of faults caused by casing gas
When the liquid supply of the oil well is insufficient, the liquid level of the oil well is very low and it is close to the suction port of the pump, and the gas in the casing annulus enters the electric pump, causing the pump to stop under load. There are several ways to deal with this situation:
(1) Control the casing pressure and lower the underload setting value;
(2) Intermittent production, adopt manual or automatic control cabinet to start the pump;
(3) If the pump hanging is shallow, the pump hanging depth can be deepened;
(4) Lower the underload setting value and reduce the nozzle;
(5) Production stimulation measures such as acidification and fracturing;
(6) Turn on the production of unmined horizons and replenish the liquid source;
(7) Replace the electric pump that matches the oil well.
3.6 Fault judgment and treatment caused by unreasonable unit matching
If the matching of the electric pump unit is not reasonable, it may also cause failure. First, the phenomenon of "large horse-drawn cart" generally does not cause an accident, but underload occurs when the motor has a large margin; second, the phenomenon of "small horse-drawn cart" occurs, and the running current will be higher than the rated current, which is serious There will be difficulties in starting and burning down of the unit. When these conditions occur, the appropriate electric pump unit can only be replaced while the pump is being inspected.
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